This is third article in the KNOW THE TRANSACTION LOG series. In Part 1 I explained about the Transaction Log File and its behaviour. In Part 2 I explained about the Recovery Models available in SQL Server 2005 which affects the behaviour of Transaction log file of the database. In this Part 3, I am going to explain about the various Backup options available in SQL Server 2005, because, Backups are the backbone of the Restore Recovery of course for a DBA too. :)
Backups in SQL Server 2005.
Two major categories of Backups are available in SQL Server. They are Data backup and Log Backup.
Data backup includes image of one or more data files and log record data. It has three types.
· Full Database Backup includes all data files in the Database which is complete set of data. This also have enough log records that allow to restore the data during restore recovery. This is called base backup. Every restore situation need at least one base, full backup. For small databases, performing a Full Backup takes small amount of time and the backup occupies small amount of disk spaces. As database becomes larger, the full backup takes more time to finish, so as the restore takes more time during recovery. As for as larger databases concern, take Full backup along with supported differential backups, transaction log backups to reduce backup and restore time and associated system overhead.
When restoring a database from a Full backup , SQL Server re-creates the database in one step. As Full database backups include transaction log records within it, after restoring is over, all uncommitted transactions during the time of full database backup taken, are rolled back. So the restored database matched the original database when it was backed up minus the uncommitted transactions.
· Differential Backup : Differential backup of a database backs up only modified data since a last base database backup. It is small in size comparative to Full Database backup, obviously, runs fast, saves backup time. The base for first Differential backup after the full backup, is last full backup and for subsequent differential backups the base is the previous differential backup until the next full data backup is performed. This base is called as differential base. For a Simple Recovery model database, there should be only one differential base and for Full Recovery Model, there may be multibase Differential bases are allowed, but it is difficult to administer. For a Read-Write and online databases, sys.database_files system catalog view returns various information including three column information about differential base. That columns are differential_base_lsn , differential_base_guid, differential_base_time. For a read-only databases sys.master_files catalog view should be use to get the information about the differential base.
Have a full database backup and subsequent frequently taken differential backup for a large mission critical databases to avoid data loss. As the differential backup process takes smaller time to finish, the restore from it also takes minimum time.
When restoring from Differential Backups , a full backup restore should be done first and then a most recent Differential backup is to be restored even though a multiple differential backups has been taken between Full Backup and most recent Differential backup. No Log Backups that were taken between full backup and Differential backup need to be restore. If any tail log backup that has been taken before the full backup is restored, then that should be restored after restoring the differential backup.
· Partial Backup includes primary file groups and read-write file groups. Excludes read-only file groups by default. It can back up specified read-only file groups while taking backup. This is new to SQL Server 2005. It is different from differential backup. It is designed to provide flexibility for databases having simple recovery model. A Partial Backup of a read-only databases only have the Primary file groups files. To create Partial Backup we have to use READ_WRITE_FILEGROUPS [<filegrouplist] option in T-SQL Statement. Partial Backups can not be done through SSMS. Maintenance Plans also do not support Partial Backups.
A Partial Backup can be base for the Differential Partial Backup. Differential Partial backups back up all the data extents that are modified after a base partial backup of same set of file groups are performed. This can be performed with the help of the following command.
BACKUP DATABASE database_name READ_WRITE_FILEGROUPS [ , <file_filegroup_list> ] TO <backup_device> WITH DIFFERENTIAL
· File Or File Group Backup includes the file or file groups specified. An Individual file of a database alone can be backed up with this type of backup. This backup is very useful for the failure situation like if only one file is damaged in the database, we can restore that particular file only instead of having full database restore. This can minimize the restore time very much. There are two types of File backups. File Backup and Differential File Backup. A File Backup of a database can be the base for the Differential File Backup. Performing Differential File backup will give you an error if you changed the read/write file to read-only file after taking last full file backup. So whenever you change a read/write file to read-only file or a read-only file to read write file then take a full file backup.
An advantage of having file backup is recovery from damaged files or a file located in damaged media is very faster. The only damaged files can be restored. The disadvantage of this is maintaining complete file backup set can be more time consuming and complexity of administrative task is increased.
A complete set of file or file group backup is equivalent to Full database backup. When performing file group backups for a full or bulk logged model database do perform transition log backups additionally.
· Transaction LOG Backup includes only log records. For a full or bulk-logged recovery model regular transaction log backup is required. If not taken the transaction log file grows continuously till the disk is full. LOG Backup can be performed with the following command.
BACKUP LOG <database name> To <device name>.
There is a special type of LOG Backup that is Tail-Log backup. This log backup is taken immediately after the database failure if the log disk is accessible. This can be done if you include WITH NORECOVERY option in BACKUP LOG Command. When you issue this option the database becomes Restoring State and becomes offline to guaranty no modification can be done after finishing the tail-log backup. After taking Tail-Log Backup you have to restore the database.
· COPY-ONLY Backup : This is a special situation backup. It does not affect the regular SQL Server Backups and Restore sequences. After taking the COPY-Only Backup the transaction logs are not truncated. As the name specified it does only copying either Full Database or Full Log. This can be performed when issuing WITH COPY_ONLY option in BACKUP Command.
The information about the backup history are stored in the msdb database which are very useful to manage backups. The following system tables in the msdb system database store history information about backups.
1) Backupfile stores a row for each data and log file in the database including a column is_present that indicates whether that file was backed up as a part of the backup set.
2) Backupfilegroup stores a row for each filegroup in a database at a time of a backup but this table does not indicate whether the filegroup was backed up or not. This table is new to SQL Server 2005.
3) Backupset stores a row for each backup set when a new backup set is created for each backup event.
4) Backupmediaset stores one row for each media set to which backupsets are written.
5) Backupmediafamily stores one row for each media family or its part of mirrored media set and one row for each mirror in the set.
For more information about Backup History see Books Online.
In the next and final part, Part-4, I will explain about Restoring Database.